May, 2021 - By WMR
Some anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac, ibuprofen, and aspirin are widely used to curb the irritation caused by inflammation.
Inflammation is one of the response that human body gives just to indicate the presence of either a pathogen or any kind of external stimuli that cause some kind of external stimuli that cause some kind of irritability in the human body. However apart from these chemical drugs, many natural compounds are also present, with similar effective action. One such example is turmeric. Recently a compound has been found from tropical gingers named, 1’- acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which can also be used for reducing effects of several inflammatory disease.
A group of researchers in Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) found that this ACA, during its action first weakens the mitochondrial damage thereby reduce the secretion of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen species (ROS), hence it blocks the activation of an inflammosome protein complex. This complex contains, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3).
Previous studies revealed that this NLRP3 Inflammosome, helps to promote inflammatory reaction in the body, by activating macrophages that helps in the secretion of IL-1β (Interleukin), a member of cytokine family. This secretion initiates a signalling reaction that recruits different immune cell aggregating at the injury site. Additionally ROS secretion also helps this inflammosome complex to get activated.
In case of the progression of several disease like rheumatoid arthritis and other auto-immune diseases there is improper regulation of this inflammosome complex. This is mainly because the above mentioned diseases are characterized by increased level of IL-1 β secretion. Thus, ACA targeting this Inflammosome complex can give efficient therapeutic result.
The inhibitory effect of ACA got confirmed when group of researcher from NAIST, cultured some immune cells, in the presence of ACA, which gave reduced secretion of IL-1 β as well as ROS, thereby inhibiting the inflammosome complex. The whole of this experiment was done in mouse model. Such natural compounds can also be used in other aspect related to diseases with cytokine storm as observed in patients suffering for Covid-19.