Jun, 2021 - By WMR
A significant advancement has been made on the mechanism of the activation of T-Cells in the body, against various viruses and pathogens.
Immune system has a unique function of recognizing disease causing elements, when present in human body. This recognition system is widely known as the self, no-self and altered self, recognition mechanism. For many years this mechanism remained under shadows. Although with the advent of newer molecular techniques and “Quantal theory of Immunity”, finally a proper molecular explanation is found.
Lymphocytes being the most used defense element of the body, consist of two branches, B-Lymphocyte and T-Lymphocyte. Their function a lot of cascading metabolic reaction with cellular signaling supporting their function. The past year of pandemic showed us the importance of these immune cells and their function in the people’s body, in regard to negate a pathogen invading their internal body system. After all these years researchers are continuing their work for a better understanding of these immune cells against different type of environmental stimuli.
Recently in a study performed by the researchers of Monash University, a significant advancement has been made on the mechanism of the activation of T-Cells in the body, against various viruses and pathogens. Most of the T-Lymphocyte use a unique T-Cell Receptor (TCR), to bind to the Peptide bound Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecule. MCH’s are very common complexes that acts in Antigen Presentation, thus popularly called as Antigen Presenting Cells (APC’s). During this binding a strong signaling reaction is needed which will substantiate the recognition function of the T-Cells towards the pathogen or the pathogenic peptide, presented by the MH molecule.
However, because of the presence of a huge number of T-cells in the body, its recognition mechanism towards the number of viruses and other pathogen was poorly understood. The study cleared many aspects of T-Cell binding and determines many factors that lead to the T-Cell activation signal production in the body. This study used a combination of X-Ray Crystallography and other high order microscopic technique. Scientists are hoping this result of to be really useful in regard to this current pandemic situation. And also in other aspects of infectious disease.